Templa (tria) Fortunæ
Three temples, dedicated to Fortune, situated close to the Porta Collina gate, inside the Servian wall ( Murus Servii
Among these three buildings, one was dedicated to Fortuna publica Citerioris
(Fortuna Publica Citerioris
(the nearest) ; the second one to Fortuna Primiginia
(Fortuna Publica Populi Romani Primiginia
(the Roman People’s Fortune), the largest in the centre of the picture, and the third and farthest, called the temple of Fortuna Publica ulterioris
(Fortuna Publica ulterioris
The Porta Collina.
A gate of the Servian wall at the far north-east end of the Quirinal. In front of this gate camped Hannibal,
as well as at the same spot, took place the battle between Sylla’s and Marius’ supporters, who finally lost.
From the old gate remain only two stones and a part of the Servian wall, the ruins of which can still be seen at the end of the Empire.
Emperor Elagabalus did establish on the Quirinal, close to the Porta Collina, a small senate, called women’s senate,
at a place where Roman ladies used to meet during solemn feasts only. To these meetings assisted only the wives
of consuls who had been honoured with the consular adornments. But this senate produced only edicts about women’s
fashion or other unimportant rules without any political consequences. It is the building in the centre of the picture.
Initially called Via Ficulnensis, because of its path originally
ending in the village of Ficulnea, the Via Nomentana
was built further to Nomentum, where it merged a few kilometres further with the Via Salaria. It started at the Via Salaria
by the Servian wall, then, in the IIIrd century went through the new Aurelian wall by the
. At the beginning of the Via Nomenta
stands the house of Haterius Latronianus
was found on the same road, but outside the Aurelian wall.
The Via Salaria
gets its name from the salt, because it was by this way that the Sabines brought the salt collected
by the mouth of the Tiber. Some historians consider that the Salaria and the salt trade are one of
the reasons of the foundation of Rome. On the Quirinal the road divided in two branches that joined
back outside the walls. We pass by the Calpurnii tomb
close to the Salaria gate.
Let’s come back to the Via Salaria,
eastwards, on the other side of the Porta Collina. There we can see the house of Flavius Vedius Antoninus,
who was proconsul in Africa. Nearby and still outside the Porta Collina, the ,
Campus Sceleratus where the vestals, who were convicted to have failed to their vow of chastity were buried alive.
The temple of Honour
A temple dedicated to Honour (Honos), built outside the Porta Collina
towards the Prætorian Guard’s Camp
On the Via Salaria we pass in front of the barracks of the IIIrd cohort of security guards ( Cohortium Vigilum Stationes )
who controlled the IVth and VIth districts of Rome. Just in front, the house of Q. Munatius Celsus, procurator of Mauretania under Caligula. At last the Campus Cohortium Prætorianum
a vast esplanade which spreads between the Prætorian Camp and the Servian wall.
It was used as an exercise ground by the Prætorian cohorts, and included some
small honorific monuments generally built by subscription : the soldiers’
names who had participated were engraved on the walls.
The way through the Viminal gate
( Porta Viminalis
in the old Servian wall, the ruins of which are identical to those of the Porta Collina
Nearby the house of Geminia Bassa ( domus Geminia Bassa )
which had been built around the IIIrd century. Upper, the Via Tiburtina Vetus
that goes along the Prætorian camp.
The Prætorian Guard’s Camp ( Castra Pætoria ).
Building of the Imperial era, situated in the east part of the Quirinal.
Built in 23 AD by Tiberius, as barracks for the Prætorian Cohorts which had
been founded by Augustus, and up to that time scattered in various parts of Rome.
It was included into Rome by Aurelian. At the same time a barrack and a fortified enclosure,
able to resist against riots, it was oriented from north to south and had the classical
rectangular shape of Roman camps : 440 metres long by 410 meters broad.
Undoubtedly a remarkable military work.
The main gate, towards the city, was adorned with an arch of triumph built by Gordian III ( the Gordian arch
) (Arcus Gordiani). Larger houses (domum) were reserved to officers.
The arsenal ( Armamentarium )
where the weapons used to be stored. The Decumana gate, in the axis of the Cardo Maximus (the longest axis).
On the other side of the Cardo Maximus stands the Porta Prætoria, which belongs to the Aurelian wall, and, opposite,
a vast open space with an altar dedicated to Fortune ( Ara Fortunæ ),
a temple dedicated to Mars (Templum Martis) and a chapel of standards next to the temple. The headquarter, and the court, were located in the Prætorium.